American College of Radiology
ACR Appropriateness Criteria®

Post-Treatment Surveillance of Bladder Cancer

Variant 1: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), no symptoms or risk factors. Post-treatment surveillance.
Procedure Appropriateness Category SOE Adult RRL Peds RRL Rating Median Final Tabulations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
MRI abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate Strong O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
23 (10992362) 3
24 (10367843) 4
29 (24072383) 2
28 (26760195) 2
30 (20152273) 3
Radiography intravenous urography Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate Limited ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
27 (23680310) 3
Radiography chest Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢ <0.1 mSv ☢ <0.03 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
US pelvis (bladder) Usually not appropriate Strong O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
25 (21655537) 2
26 (18096730) 2
MRI abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate Strong O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
24 (10367843) 4
23 (10992362) 3
30 (20152273) 3
29 (24072383) 2
28 (26760195) 2
CT chest without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT chest without IV contrast Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT chest with IV contrast Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate Limited ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
27 (23680310) 3
CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast Usually not appropriate Limited ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
27 (23680310) 3
FDG-PET/CT skull base to mid-thigh Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Variant 2: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), with symptoms or risk factors. Post-treatment surveillance.
Procedure Appropriateness Category SOE Adult RRL Peds RRL Rating Median Final Tabulations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
CT abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually appropriate Limited ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 8 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
35 (25341140) 1
36 (18796677) 3
MRI abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast May be appropriate Strong O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 6 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
28 (26760195) 2
29 (24072383) 2
37 (19332849) 2
38 (19247665) 2
39 (20171676) 2
Radiography chest May be appropriate Expert Consensus ☢ <0.1 mSv ☢ <0.03 mSv [ped] 5 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate Strong O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
28 (26760195) 2
29 (24072383) 2
37 (19332849) 2
38 (19247665) 2
39 (20171676) 2
Radiography intravenous urography Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast Usually not appropriate Limited ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
35 (25341140) 1
36 (18796677) 3
FDG-PET/CT skull base to mid-thigh Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
US pelvis (bladder) Usually not appropriate Strong O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
25 (21655537) 2
26 (18096730) 2
CT chest without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT chest without IV contrast Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT chest with IV contrast Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate Limited ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
35 (25341140) 1
36 (18796677) 3
Variant 3: Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) with or without cystectomy. Post-treatment surveillance.
Procedure Appropriateness Category SOE Adult RRL Peds RRL Rating Median Final Tabulations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Radiography chest Usually appropriate Expert Consensus ☢ <0.1 mSv ☢ <0.03 mSv [ped] 9 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fluoroscopy abdomen loopogram Usually appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv 8 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually appropriate Limited ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 8 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
35 (25341140) 1
MRI abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually appropriate Limited O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 7 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
39 (20171676) 2
50 (19396568) 3
51 (19914691) 3
CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast Usually appropriate Limited ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 7 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
35 (25341140) 1
CT chest with IV contrast May be appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 6 6 0 0 0 2 5 7 1 1 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast May be appropriate Limited O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 5 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
39 (20171676) 2
51 (19914691) 3
50 (19396568) 3
CT chest without IV contrast May be appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 5 5 0 0 0 2 11 2 0 1 0
FDG-PET/CT skull base to mid-thigh May be appropriate Strong ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 5 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
52 (19652070) 2
53 (20151968) 2
54 (17475965) 3
55 (27565154) 2
56 (22448033) 4
57 (16741302) 2
US pelvis (bladder) Usually not appropriate Limited O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
42 (24462548) 3
Radiography intravenous urography Usually not appropriate Limited ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
49 (21512076) 3
CT abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate Limited ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
References Study Quality
35 (25341140) 1
CT chest without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate Expert Consensus ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Appendix Key

A more complete discussion of the items presented below can be found by accessing the supporting documents at the designated hyperlinks.

Appropriateness Category:The panel’s recommendation for a procedure based on the assessment of the risks and benefits of performing the procedure for the specified clinical scenario.

SOE: Strength of Evidence. The assessment of the amount and quality of evidence found in the peer reviewed medical literature for an appropriateness recommendation.

  • References: The citation number and PMID for the reference(s) associated with the recommendation.
  • Study Quality: The assessment of the quality of an individual reference based on the number of study quality elements described in the reference.

RRL: Relative Radiation Level. A population based assessment of the amount of radiation a typical patient may be exposed to during the specified procedure.

Rating: The final rating (1-9 scale) for the procedure as determined by the panel during rating rounds.

Median: The median rating (1-9 scale) for the procedure as determined by the panel during rating rounds.

Final tabulations: A histogram showing the number of panel members who rated the procedure as noted in the column heading (ie, 1, 2, 3, etc.).

Additional supporting documents about the AC methodology and processes can be found at www.acr.org/ac.