American College of Radiology
ACR Appropriateness Criteria®

Hematuria–Child

Variant 1: Child. Isolated microscopic hematuria (nonpainful, nontraumatic) without proteinuria. Initial imaging.
Procedure Appropriateness Category SOE Adult RRL Peds RRL Rating Median Final Tabulations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
US kidneys and bladder Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 3 3 2 3 8 0 1 0 1 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 1 10 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 1 9 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 1 1 11 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Fluoroscopy intravenous urography Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 1 1 10 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fluoroscopy voiding cystourethrography Usually not appropriate ☢☢ 0.1-1mSv ☢☢ 0.03-0.3 mSv [ped] 1 1 9 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0
Arteriography kidneys Usually not appropriate TBD TBD ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 1 13 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 1 1 9 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 1 1 9 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Radiography abdomen and pelvis Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 1 1 9 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0
Voiding urosonography Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 1 1 10 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0
Variant 2: Child. Isolated microscopic hematuria (nonpainful, nontraumatic) with proteinuria. Initial imaging.
Procedure Appropriateness Category SOE Adult RRL Peds RRL Rating Median Final Tabulations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
US kidneys and bladder Usually appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 7 7 0 0 1 0 0 4 3 4 2
Fluoroscopy voiding cystourethrography Usually not appropriate ☢☢ 0.1-1mSv ☢☢ 0.03-0.3 mSv [ped] 2 2 7 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 1 10 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 1 9 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 1 1 11 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Fluoroscopy intravenous urography Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 1 1 10 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arteriography kidneys Usually not appropriate TBD TBD ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 1 13 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 1 1 8 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 1 1 9 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Radiography abdomen and pelvis (KUB) Usually not appropriate ☢☢ 0.1-1mSv ☢☢ 0.03-0.3 mSv [ped] 1 1 9 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 0
Voiding urosonography Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 1 1 9 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Variant 3: Child. Isolated macroscopic hematuria (nonpainful, nontraumatic). Initial imaging.
Procedure Appropriateness Category SOE Adult RRL Peds RRL Rating Median Final Tabulations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
US kidneys and bladder Usually appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 7
CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 3 3 2 4 9 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 3 3 3 3 7 2 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 3 3 3 4 5 1 0 0 0 1 0
Fluoroscopy voiding cystourethrography Usually not appropriate ☢☢ 0.1-1mSv ☢☢ 0.03-0.3 mSv [ped] 3 3 2 4 8 1 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 3 3 5 2 2 2 2 1 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 3 3 1 6 6 2 0 0 0 0 0
Radiography abdomen and pelvis (KUB) Usually not appropriate ☢☢ 0.1-1mSv ☢☢ 0.03-0.3 mSv [ped] 3 3 2 1 7 3 0 0 0 1 0
Fluoroscopy intravenous urography Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 2 2 7 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0
Voiding urosonography Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 2 2 4 6 4 1 0 0 0 0 0
Arteriography kidneys Usually not appropriate TBD TBD ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 1 1 10 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Variant 4: Child. Painful hematuria (nontraumatic). Suspected urolithiasis. Initial imaging.
Procedure Appropriateness Category SOE Adult RRL Peds RRL Rating Median Final Tabulations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
CT abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 8 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
US kidneys and bladder Usually appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 8 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Radiography abdomen and pelvis May be appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 6 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fluoroscopy intravenous urography Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fluoroscopy voiding cystourethrography Usually not appropriate ☢☢ 0.1-1mSv ☢☢ 0.03-0.3 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arteriography kidneys Usually not appropriate TBD TBD ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Voiding urosonography Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 2 2 4 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
Variant 5: Child. Traumatic hematuria (macroscopic). Initial imaging.
Procedure Appropriateness Category SOE Adult RRL Peds RRL Rating Median Final Tabulations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast Usually appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 9 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fluoroscopy retrograde urethrography May be appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 6 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT pelvis with bladder contrast (CT cystography) May be appropriate ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 5 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arteriography kidneys Usually not appropriate TBD TBD ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
US kidneys and bladder Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 3 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fluoroscopy intravenous urography Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fluoroscopy voiding cystourethrography Usually not appropriate ☢☢ 0.1-1mSv ☢☢ 0.03-0.3 mSv [ped] 2 2 3 9 2 0 0 0 1 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Radiography abdomen and pelvis Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Voiding urosonography Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 2 2 7 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Variant 6: Child. Traumatic hematuria (microscopic). Initial imaging.
Procedure Appropriateness Category SOE Adult RRL Peds RRL Rating Median Final Tabulations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
CT abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast Usually appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 7 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT pelvis with bladder contrast (CT cystography) May be appropriate ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 6 6 0 0 0 2 3 5 4 1 0
Fluoroscopy retrograde urethrography May be appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 4 4 2 3 2 3 3 1 0 0 0
US kidneys and bladder May be appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 4 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CT abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv ☢☢☢☢☢ 10-30 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fluoroscopy intravenous urography Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fluoroscopy voiding cystourethrography Usually not appropriate ☢☢ 0.1-1mSv ☢☢ 0.03-0.3 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arteriography kidneys Usually not appropriate TBD TBD ☢☢☢☢ 3-10 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MRI abdomen and pelvis without and with IV contrast Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Radiography abdomen and pelvis Usually not appropriate ☢☢☢ 1-10 mSv ☢☢☢ 0.3-3 mSv [ped] 2 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Voiding urosonography Usually not appropriate O 0 mSv O 0 mSv [ped] 2 2 3 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Appendix Key

A more complete discussion of the items presented below can be found by accessing the supporting documents at the designated hyperlinks.

Appropriateness Category:The panel’s recommendation for a procedure based on the assessment of the risks and benefits of performing the procedure for the specified clinical scenario.

SOE: Strength of Evidence. The assessment of the amount and quality of evidence found in the peer reviewed medical literature for an appropriateness recommendation.

  • References: The citation number and PMID for the reference(s) associated with the recommendation.
  • Study Quality: The assessment of the quality of an individual reference based on the number of study quality elements described in the reference.

RRL: Relative Radiation Level. A population based assessment of the amount of radiation a typical patient may be exposed to during the specified procedure.

Rating: The final rating (1-9 scale) for the procedure as determined by the panel during rating rounds.

Median: The median rating (1-9 scale) for the procedure as determined by the panel during rating rounds.

Final tabulations: A histogram showing the number of panel members who rated the procedure as noted in the column heading (ie, 1, 2, 3, etc.).

Additional supporting documents about the AC methodology and processes can be found at www.acr.org/ac.