Reference
Reference
Study Type
Study Type
Patients/Events
Patients/Events
Study Objective(Purpose of Study)
Study Objective(Purpose of Study)
Study Results
Study Results
Study Quality
Study Quality
1. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria®: Pulsatile Abdominal Mass, Suspected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Available at: https://acsearch.acr.org/docs/69414/Narrative/. Accessed August 20, 2014. Review/Other-Dx N/A Evidence-based guidelines to assist referring physicians and other providers in making the most appropriate imaging or treatment decision for a specific clinical condition. N/A 4
2. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria®: Clinically Suspected Adnexal Mass. Available at: https://acsearch.acr.org/docs/69466/Narrative/. Accessed August 20, 2014. Review/Other-Dx N/A Evidence-based guidelines to assist referring physicians and other providers in making the most appropriate imaging or treatment decision for a specific clinical condition. N/A 4
3. Aspelin P, Hildell J, Karlsson S, Sigurjonson S. Ultrasonic evaluation of palpable abdominal masses. Acta Chir Scand. 1980;146(7):501-506. Review/Other-Dx 50 patients To evaluate US to diagnose and characterize palpable abdominal masses. Of the 45 patients with a mass, US verified the mass in 43 patients (96%) and a correct origin of the mass was found in 41 patients (91%). The exact nature of the lesion was diagnosed in 32 patients (71%). In 2 patients US was falsely negative. 4
4. Barker CS, Lindsell DR. Ultrasound of the palpable abdominal mass. Clin Radiol. 1990;41(2):98-99. Observational-Dx 104 patients Retrospective study to assess US as the initial imaging study in patients with palpable abdominal mass. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV all greater than 95%. 69 patients had an abnormality responsible for the clinically palpable mass and 35 patients did not. There was 1 false positive US diagnosis and 1 false negative. The correct organ of origin was suggested in 60 patients and the correct pathological diagnosis in 53 patients. The high PPV (99%) and NPV (97%) for the presence or absence of a lesion in these patients compare very well with the investigation of such patients by CT. It is suggested that US should be the initial investigation. 3
5. Dixon AK, Fry IK, Kingham JG, McLean AM, White FE. Computed tomography in patients with an abdominal mass: effective and efficient? A controlled trial. Lancet. 1981;1(8231):1199-1201. Experimental-Dx 53 patients; 28 had CT as initial imaging technique To evaluate CT vs non-cross-sectional imaging in diagnosing palpable abdominal mass. Time to diagnosis and in-patients days less with CT. CT diagnosed 96% correctly. Combination of non-cross-sectional imaging studies correct in 88%. CT seems accurate in the investigation of a palpable abdominal mass and particularly useful in excluding a pathological cause. The need for the latter is emphasized by the fact that no lesion could be found in 23/53 patients. 1
6. Holm HH, Gammelgaard J, Jensen F, Smith EH, Hillman BJ. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of a palpable abdominal mass. A prospective study of 107 patients. Gastrointest Radiol. 1982;7(2):149-151. Review/Other-Dx 107 consecutive patients To determine the reliability of US in a consecutive series of patients with the clinical finding of a palpable abdominal mass. 29 different US diagnoses were reached. In 98 (97%) of the patients the US diagnoses were correct. Two uterine leiomyomas were erroneously diagnosed as ovarian in origin, and a massive adrenal carcinoma was misdiagnosed as a hepatic tumor. It is suggested that US scanning is the method of choice in evaluating patients with a palpable abdominal mass. 4
7. Williams MP, Scott IH, Dixon AK. Computed tomography in 101 patients with a palpable abdominal mass. Clin Radiol. 1984;35(4):293-296. Observational-Dx 101 patients Retrospective review to assess CT for verifying presence of a mass, and characterizing it. 99% sensitivity, 97% specificity, 99% PPV, and 97% NPV. Such high PPV and NPV indicate the value of CT in determining the presence or absence of a lesion to account for a clinically apparent mass, especially when there is doubt as to its presence or organ of origin. As to the cause of the mass, CT correctly identified the responsible organ or structure in 64/69 patients with a lesion (93%) and suggested the likely nature in 61 (88%). 3
8. Colquhoun IR, Saywell WR, Dewbury KC. An analysis of referrals for primary diagnostic abdominal ultrasound to a general X-ray department. Br J Radiol. 1988;61(724):297-300. Review/Other-Dx 1,861 patients To identify inappropriate requests by correlating referral patterns, clinical diagnoses and the findings from US examination. Abnormalities were found in 30% of examinations. Comparison of outpatient and family practitioner referrals in cases of suspected gallstones (24%:27%) indicated the value of general practitioner access. There was also evidence, in the absence of a dilated common bile duct, that there was little value in extending the examination of the gallbladder. In post-cholecystectomy syndrome, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is shown to be the investigation of choice. When only indication was pain, US positive in 15%. When mass was palpable, US positive in 38%. 4
9. Annuar Z, Sakijan AS, Annuar N, Kooi GH. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of palpable abdominal masses in children. Med J Malaysia. 1990;45(4):281-287. Observational-Dx 125 children To evaluate US plus clinical data used to diagnose the nature of palpable abdominal masses in pediatric patients. US correctly diagnosed 78% of masses (scans read as negative had no follow-up). Correct diagnoses of all cases of adrenal hematoma, psoas abscess, liver hematoma, liver abscess and one case of liver metastases were achieved with correlation of relevant clinical information. 4
10. White M, Stella J. Ovarian torsion: 10-year perspective. Emerg Med Australas. 2005;17(3):231-237. Review/Other-Dx 52 cases A retrospective case review to define the presenting symptoms and clinical progress of surgically proven cases of ovarian torsion presenting to a tertiary women’s hospital. Median time to diagnosis was 22 hours (interquartile range: 7.8–55.0). The diagnosis was mostly made at surgery (36, 69.2%, 95% CI, 60.5%–77.9%) with clinically suspicion in 10 (19.2%, 95% CI, 17.2%–21.3%) and US suspicion/confirmation in 6 (11.5%, 95% CI, 10.5%–12.5%) cases. US was performed in 31 (59.6%, 95% CI, 51.7%–67.6%) cases. Underlying pathologies included: ovarian cysts (27, 51.9%, 95% CI, 44.9%–59.0%) and tumors (16, 30.8%, 95% CI, 26.9%–34.6%) –mostly benign. Ovarian preservation occurred in 16 (30.8%, 95% CI, 26.9%–34.6%) cases with no demonstrable association to patient age, time to diagnosis or known risk factors. The main clinical features included: sudden pain, nausea/vomiting and palpable abdominal mass. Clinical characteristics lack sensitivity and specificity and US diagnosis is not definitive. Laparoscopy remains the investigation of choice. 4
11. Fufezan O, Asavoaie C, Blag C, Popa G. The role of ultrasonography for diagnosis the renal masses in children. Pictorial essay. Med Ultrason. 2011;13(1):59-71. Review/Other-Dx N/A To demonstrate the US features of the most frequently encountered reno-urinary masses in children. US should be the first imaging investigation performed in children with an abdominal mass. It can be performed safely regardless of the clinical status of the patient, it is noninvasive and painless, requires no radiological contrast media and it is a relatively inexpensive. US is usually able to give an accurate localization of the lesion to a specific area or organ of the abdomen and provides good differentiation of solid from fluid or blood-filled masses. 4
12. Maheshwari P, Abograra A, Shamam O. Sonographic evaluation of gastrointestinal obstruction in infants: a pictorial essay. J Pediatr Surg. 44(10):2037-42, 2009 Oct. Review/Other-Dx N/A To illustrate the US appearances of various causes of gastrointestinal obstruction in infants and discuss the role of US in their evaluation. Good US machines can provide high-resolution images with graphic anatomical clarity, especially in infants and children and thus change the traditional diagnostic trends. 4
13. Chang CJ, Hsieh TH, Tsai KC, Fan CM. Sigmoid volvulus in a young woman nearly misdiagnosed as fecal impaction. J Emerg Med. 2013;44(3):611-613. Review/Other-Dx 1 woman To report a previously healthy young woman with the triad of constipation, progressive abdominal distension, and severe abdominal pain, with plain-film x-ray studies mimicking stool impaction and CT disclosing the typical findings of sigmoid volvulus. Sigmoid volvulus is rarely seen in developed countries. Clinical manifestations vary with disease progression, but it typically presents with a triad of constipation, progressive abdominal distension, and severe abdominal pain. Plain-film x-ray studies can demonstrate a coffee bean or "omega loop" (inverted-U sigmoid) sign in <60% cases, but it was reported as high as 86% in CT. The whirl sign on CT might also be observed. The cause is multifactorial and colonic length is the most important predisposing factor. Flexible colon fiberscopic decompression followed by elective definitive surgery is the treatment choice, but exploratory laparotomy is mandatory if any complicated entity occurs. The mortality rate is still >50% when bowel gangrene develops. 4
14. Osiro SB, Cunningham D, Shoja MM, Tubbs RS, Gielecki J, Loukas M. The twisted colon: a review of sigmoid volvulus. Am Surg. 2012;78(3):271-279. Review/Other-Dx N/A A review of sigmoid volvulus. Abdominal radiography is used to diagnose sigmoid volvulus in most cases with CT scan or MRI as the confirmatory tests when necessary. 4
15. Atamanalp SS. Sigmoid volvulus: diagnosis in 938 patients over 45.5 years. Tech Coloproctol. 2013;17(4):419-424. Review/Other-Dx 938 patients To investigate the diagnosis approach to 938 patients with sigmoid volvulus treated at an institution and their clinical outcomes. A total of 210 (25.1%) of 837 patients, who provided information on anamnesis and clinical features, had recurrent episodes of volvulus; 215 patients (25.7%) had comorbidities, and 108 patients (12.9%) presented with toxic or hypovolemic shock. The mean duration of symptoms was 38.7 h (range 6 h to 7 days), and the most common clinical features were abdominal pain and tenderness (827/837 patients, 98.8%), distention (805 patients, 96.2%), and obstipation (771 patients, 92.1%). The final diagnosis was made with endoscopy in 519 patients (55.3%), endoscopy followed by surgery in 154 patients (16.4%) and at surgery in 265 patients (28.3%). The correct diagnosis rate was 71.6% based on clinical findings compared with 66.7% based on radiography, 81.4% based on both clinical and radiography findings, and 100.0% based on CT or MRI findings. 4
16. Baleato-Gonzalez S, Vilanova JC, Garcia-Figueiras R, Juez IB, Martinez de Alegria A. Intussusception in adults: what radiologists should know. Emerg Radiol. 2012;19(2):89-101. Review/Other-Dx N/A To illustrate several causes of adult intussusception with a variety of radiological findings on radiography, US, CT, MRI, and endoscopy seen at our institution. Imaging plays a major role in the diagnosis and in determining the appropriate treatment. 4
17. Patel DR, Levine MS, Rubesin SE, Zafar H, Lev-Toaff AS. Comparison of small bowel follow through and abdominal CT for detecting recurrent Crohn's disease in neoterminal ileum. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82(3):464-471. Observational-Dx 52 patients To assess the findings of recurrent Crohn's disease in the neoterminal ileum on small bowel follow through and CT as well as the overall diagnostic performance of these imaging tests. Small bowel follow through had a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, PPV of 95%, and NPV of 73% for detecting recurrent Crohn's disease, and CT had a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 69%, PPV of 88%, and NPV of 50%. These tests combined had a sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 69%, PPV of 90%, and NPV of 82%. The most common findings were luminal narrowing, thickened folds, and ulcers (especially aphthoid lesions) on small bowel follow through and bowel wall thickening on CT. CT also revealed extraenteric collections not visualized on SBFT in 3 patients (8%). 3